The typical charter school endows its teaching staff with more say in the school’s goings-on than a traditional public school. “Get away from high-stakes testing, get away from charter schools. Even excellent veteran educators, like the three physical education teachers who were fired one year ago, are vulnerable. Former teacher here: spent 2 years teaching in a private school, 3 years teaching in an inner city public school, and 2 years teaching at a rural charter school. In the fall of 2017 we moved our temporary Washington Heights location to our permanent space in Kingsbridge. Movies like "Waiting for Superman" tell us they’re thriving and have waitlists. Lastly, as the charter school is private, they work with third party companies, most of which are subsidiaries of the charter school company itself – thus more profit out of tax payer dollars! It was quickly becoming a climate of terror inside the school. Charter schools are really small experimental schools with crazy classes in things like underwater basket weaving. They told me they’d been aware of the school’s violations and were considering rejecting its charter, which was up for renewal. I also learned that our teachers had tried unionizing in the past, part of a national trend among charter teachers. Most charter schools follow a point-based infraction system. For information about a specific charter school and its enrollment deadline, contact the school directly. Charter schools work for some kids. The principal enrolled five kids who didn’t speak English and weren’t being properly taught, since only one of the three English teachers held the required certificate, and all three of us had ESL students in our classes. Like my colleagues, I was carrying a crushing course load — six distinct classes across grades 7, 9, and 12 — three more than I was told I’d teach when I was hired. Late to class and forget your pencil? The lack of experience is combated by that energy, but everyone I know that has worked or is working for a charter program experiences a high degree of burn-out. Students get materials and head to next class, under the supervision of Dean that monitors the hallways, issuing detentions for student that can’t behave correctly, Students silently line up outside the classroom. John Oliver made a humorous video about the state of the charter school industry. I was busy teaching, prepping or assisting with after school activities. By this point, I had insomnia and panic attacks, so coming to work was excruciating. I did the research, role played with colleagues, read the reviews on Glassdoor, etc. I kept going for the kids, but, in desperation, I bared my soul to two sympathetic officials. This is the Charter Schools USA company profile. Some charter schools have way more structure than the average public school classroom, requiring lesson plans blocked out in three-minute increments. I want to state this unequivocally before the academic vultures attack me, many charter schools are helping reduce the education gap, ensuring that students in low-income communities have access to a high quality education. Our school is located in East Harlem and Kingsbridge. Timer goes off. You put it away very quickly, because I think you understand how distracting it can be when we’re trying to really focus on this part of the lesson. The charter schools Ive heard about are amazing, but theyre impossible to get into. What would a “perfect” version of this interaction sound like? The physics teacher had three nervous breakdowns in total. The teachers at her school had a voice, she said, and the close rapport between students and staff made it feel "like a family." Be quiet. On August 2, 2016, in sunny Los Angeles, I interviewed with the amiable principal of a charter school. I just quit my job as a teacher in an urban charter school. (Pause for eye contact, maintain effective posture) Cellphones are not allowed in class. Interviewer: Quick feedback loop. I look at this moment in clear disgust at the human ability to rationalize anything when it’s self-serving. American Enterprise Institute 1789 Massachusetts Avenue, NW Washington, DC 20036 Main telephone: 202.862.5800 Main fax: 202.862.7177 My colleagues and I often lost our temper due to stress. Great job reinforcing school-wide expectations. On June 30th, our school was shut down, joining the 50 other charters that were shuttered in the 2016-17 fiscal year in California and the 200-300 charters that are closed each year across the nation because of poor performance, financial issues, low enrollment, nepotism, violations against students with disabilities and English language learners, and fraud. Yes, some charters offer slightly better pay than public schools but there’s a catch. For a C school it was not the best. Usually once a student has lost 3 points in the day, they have detention. So the hardest classes of the day were periods 7–8. Regular public schools work for some kids. In East Harlem we serve close to … (It has also always been litigious, but is becoming even more so as authorities crack down on charters’ violations against students with disabilities.) Charter schools are often created, funded and run by private corporations with the primary goal of turning a profit, even if that comes at the expense of school safety, supplies, curriculum, pedagogy and teachers’ working conditions. When teachers aren’t unionized, they’re exploited. When I glimpsed at my schedule, my jaw dropped further. So why is the issue of school choice still so divisive? A charter school is an independent educational resource for a community that is still publicly funded. I wouldn’t back down, so in order to intimidate me, she sat in the back of my classroom for an entire period, shooting me dirty looks, texting on her phone, and laughing. The big thing is the lack of job specifics. Most of Ohio’s charter schools are located in six of the state’s seven largest school districts. They fall under their own umbrella and for all intents and purposes are like working at a private school. To top it all off, the growing cultural contempt for teachers that blamed us for all of society’s ills only further pushed me out and soured me on the profession. Even at private schools they’d prefer you be certified. In Washington, D.C., where Congress created a Public Charter School Board, 45 percent of public school … Furthermore, it makes no sense to defund public schools, which 85-90% of kids attend, for the benefit of the 5 percent that attend charters, when only a handful perform better than public schools, while most do the same — or worse. The education reform movement had revved up, with its testing craze, useless paperwork, and disregard for teachers’ input. SPED is a highly specialized and stressful field that requires individual attention between teacher and student — which is a big part of why this law is in place. Charters, which are publicly funded but privately managed, are booming across America because of bipartisan support for education reform and school choice. At all of the schools I’ve taught, on a typical day 30% or 150 students will have earned a detention. So far I've only seen positive things and the teachers I work with feel like we're all a big, supportive community. As she was packing her belongings into boxes, the physics teacher was having a nervous breakdown. Charter school teachers work an average of 210 days (195 school days with 15 for PD) while public school teachers work around 180. Charter schools wouldn’t even be a discussion topic if it wasn’t for billionaires trying to push it so much. My Response: Hi student, I noticed your cellphone went off in the middle of the lesson. Quick digression, my favorite teachers were always strict and didn’t deal with BS, demanding always the best from their students, my natural teaching style is very similar. Any teacher or school official can issue an infraction. Having a cellphone, out of uniform, no homework, cursing, failing to follow directions are 3 point infractions. But not all charter schools are non-union. It's not hard to see why. The only downside is the pay. The charter school also paid $5,000 more than the competing public school and offered a brand new building to work in. They’re advertised as academically superior and physically safer than public schools because of their "no excuses" approach to schoolwork and discipline. This triggered kids misbehaving and getting rampantly suspended. I didn’t think I’d ever teach again — but then, I started hearing the buzz about charter schools. Art by Sean Flaherty, who was also fired from this charter school on June 1, 2011. Most kids knew they had detention before they walked into school, or by the end of lunch time. Evidence about the oppressive policies of many charter schools is harder to find. The laid-off humanities teacher never found a new job for the 2016-17 school year. Charter law states that the deadline to apply for a charter school cannot be earlier than April 1. When would college not be the right option? Charter schools dominated that list, too. Greeting my colleagues, who were coughing due to the dust in the air, I realized most of us were new. Pretty easily. Please do so in the comments below and click on the “clap” if you liked what you read! The problem is that, of the thousands of charter schools, many are outright failures. If more students enroll than the school … Students are. LAUSD loses over $500 million a year because of students who enroll in charters, but even at Alliance College-Ready Public Schools, which send 95 percent of their kids to college, the vast majority eventually drop out. Alabama’s charter law, passed in 2015, does not allow charter schools to discriminate or otherwise choose which students attend. Then “starts” the lesson. Share Why Teachers Choose Charter Schools to Twitter Share Why Teachers Choose Charter Schools to Facebook. Even luminaries like Colin Powell, Oprah Winfrey, and Matt Damon have said that were it not for their public school teachers, they wouldn’t have achieved their American dreams. They stand up straight and must maintain eye contact with the teacher who is now issuing directions. The special education teacher’s colitis landed him in the hospital, so he quit in January. It seemed to me that the loose regulations had emboldened administrators to cross legal and ethical lines in other ways, too. I have friends who work for charter schools, I have other friends who have decided to send their kids to a charter school–I promise, I get it. This wasn’t out of the ordinary, either: Nepotism abounds at charters across the country. If you went to a failing public school like myself, you recognize that the American education system is broken, and in desperate need of repair. I watched pieces of pepperoni decay on the stairs and globs of feces dry up on the bathroom wall over several weeks. I work at a charter school in MA, but I haven't been finding listings (maybe you're in a different part of the state). She never suspended him, despite the fact that she handed out suspensions to other kids like Halloween candy. In California — the Wild West of the charter sector because of the schools that pop up indiscriminately — it is that easy. During a lesson, my smart, sweet ninth graders were distracted by a roach striding across the floor, victoriously waving a cookie crumb in the air with its pincers. How they’re different: Charter schools receive state funding on a fixed, per-pupil basis, while traditional public schools receive more funding more heavily in the form of local taxpayer dollars. (Wait for student to start working again before you walk away). Which is what most teachers in all schools do every day. Some charters may have a later deadline. The grading and lesson planning that kept him up until 3 AM — when he had to be awake at 6 AM — had sent him over the edge. I noticed some startling trends in all of this research: compliancy was the backbone of all school culture, exhaustion with long school days, and restrictive policies about student expression. Charter schools are public schools, tuition-free and open to all on a first-come, first-serve basis, or by lottery. (Many schools offer specific guidance on this, backs must be straight against the back of chairs, hands on top of the desk, posture straight up) Teacher waits for 100% of students to do this, issuing infractions to any student who hasn’t. Now the goal was to save the school at all costs, and the lawlessness intensified. (I said most of this in a clear, professional, but ultimately “warm” voice). Only the sixth-ranked South-Western City School District lacks a significant group of charters, and is the only one of the top seven that experienced enrollment growth in the years between 2000-01 and 2003-04. Silent lunch was my Dean’s favorite punishment. Among the highly qualified new hires were a seasoned calculus teacher; an experienced sixth grade humanities teacher; a physics instructor who’d previously taught college; an actor turned biology teacher; and a young and exuberant special education teacher. This memory has stuck with me, as this school was a leader in creating the no-nonsense style of dealing with student misbehaviors. Me: Student, you have a detention for failing to adhere to the school’s no cellphone policy. I primed my students for tests instead of teaching them new content. I was a teacher at a charter school for a year. Detention. An early attempt at education choice was charter schools. After being publicly excoriated by the assistant principal for butting heads with her son — the umpteenth person to do so — the biology teacher resigned, too. Firing Day at a Charter School An image of Dany Edwards. During her disastrous interview on "60 Minutes" this week, Education Secretary Betsy DeVos made the false claim that charter schools make public schools better — but if my story is any indication, this is simply not the case. When the goal of college attainment fails so miserably, it's hard not to wonder if the divestment from public schools is worth it. I have friends who work for charter schools, I have other friends who have decided to send their kids to a charter school–I promise, I get it. The result is chaos: Schools struggle to establish themselves, teachers quit, and kids bounce around from school to school at a head-spinning rate. Sit up straight! Because most of them aren’t unionized, they argue that one major "appeal" is that they can also fire bad teachers — and due to their looser regulations, they can give good teachers the freedom to be innovative. I tacitly supported oppressive and dehumanizing systems of student management. By January 2017, more kids had fled, so it looked like we may not make it to June, let alone next year. Skipping detention means you have it for the next two days. We love to see teachers adapt quickly to our behavior systems, it allows them to teach curriculum effectively. Many public school authorities hate charter schools. Please stop working. Interviewer: Here is your scenario. I signed a non-union contract on the spot. At times of the year, teachers can expect the school “culture” team to recalibrate the rules, adding further behaviors that must be monitored. These were meant to attract the best and brightest students and provide them a level of education they often could not find in their local school districts. Amber Charter Schools was founded in 2000 as the first Latino-led charter school in New York State by the Community Association of Progressive Dominicans (ACDP), a community based organization. But I soon realized there was a gulf between charter school hype and reality. You won’t be able to mimic this machine. We were in a gang-ridden, drug-infested area — but there was no security guard or emergency plan in place. However, I’m trying my best to stay until the end of the school year. The 'Bridgerton' Questionnaire: Regé-Jean Page, Approaching Self-Care the Way I Approach My Job, Five Recipes for Festive Holiday Beverages, 22 Authors on Books That Gave Them Hope in 2020, This content is created and maintained by a third party, and imported onto this page to help users provide their email addresses. The real reason teachers' unions oppose charter schools. Well, that’s all I’ve got for this confession. The school where I’d worked had started spiraling downhill, and so did my joy for teaching. In March, another senior dropped out, bringing the graduating students down to 14. At (charter school) we use a demanding and assertive voice and limit the amount of words said. Walk me through the conversation you will have with this student, confirming the school’s no cellphone in class policy and the appropriate detention consequence. Bob Beckel In the quest to be good at my job, get the best results, and become an amazing teacher, I lost sight of why I chose this profession. This is the Charterhouse(UK) company profile. In fact, I was one of those kids. But the biggest threat was to our safety. Sit Down! About Charter Schools; Our Work; What You Can Do; Donate; Why Teachers Choose Charter Schools. The working conditions made it a test of endurance. Thankfully, she managed to escape — and the student was arrested and, finally, expelled. I was inspired by her passion — and despite the fact that the school was moving for a third time in three years and had lost its co-founder and a few teachers (all of whom had resigned), I signed a non-union contract on the spot. Thankfully I didn’t get the call back from this school. And there are reasons to be optimistic about the future of public schools. My Conscious: RUN! Alexa in Education? She struggled to get away, but he blocked both doors. I’ll let you determine how you would learn in this environment. Please sit up straight, in a scholarly position. A month into the school year, we got kids from a charter school that suddenly closed because of enrollment and facility issues, leaving kids scrambling for schools and teachers scrounging for jobs. However, kids from underprivileged, without access or educated advocates, cycling through the motions of poverty, they needed a system like this to become successful. There are even good reasons to send your child to a charter school. The contract with the district that called for our school to get cleaned twice weekly wasn’t honored. Charter schools embarrass local public schools because they often do a better job educating children, for less money. My school believes in teaching the kids what they need to know by any means necessary. How they’re the same: Charter schools and traditional public schools are both free, cannot discriminate against students they admit to their schools, and receive state funding. To give context about how “structured” charter schools are, allow me to walk you through a typical start and end of one class period in the charter schools I’ve taught at. You continue teaching the instructional portion of your lesson and are now interacting with students as they work silently. Interviewer: I do want to reiterate that this would be a highly effective and desirable use of our discipline system. One of my seventh graders had attended seven schools over the course of seven years. Even though I still don’t have another… I hope the next school that I do work … A month into the school year, we got kids from a charter school that suddenly closed because of enrollment and facility issues, leaving kids scrambling for schools and teachers scrounging for jobs. One morning, there was a shooting outside a nearby school. For example, talking, running, forgetting a class material like a book/pencil is a 1 point in fraction. Let me show you the schedule: Detention (rebranded and called “extension”): 3:15–4:15. Not only does teacher turnover harm student achievement, but according to a 2016 Penn State University research brief, "When teachers are highly stressed, children show lower levels of both social adjustment and academic performance.". I had the privilege of working with the charter schools for a little over a year and a typical day of work was never boring. Charter schools are supposed to be innovative; they were originally intended as labs to test out new education techniques. I attended public schools all my life; they’re the reason I went from Soviet refugee to Ivy League graduate. Thats not true! Starry eyed upon college graduation, I was eager to impress. April 29, 2016. … Students, please stop working. Florina Rodov has written for The Atlantic, CNN, Electric Literature (Pushcart Prize nomination), and others. The stats are similarly dismal in DeVos’ home state of Michigan — which loses a billion dollars a year in funding to charter schools — and across the country: Only about 23 percent of charter students persist through college. While it may seem robotic at first, you will become comfortable with it. One student was suspended 18 times in six months — something I’d never seen in public schools. Here are the 5 key differences between working at a public, private, and charter schools. When a senior grabbed a teacher’s ass, the principal didn’t expel him (she couldn’t afford to lose more students) — so he continued sexually harassing her, and it felt like there was nothing we could do to stop him. This piece in part was inspired by the New York Times’ riveting expose of Success Academy, one of the larger charter schools networks in the country. Well, here it goes…. My first interview with the one of the largest charter schools in the nation was on the phone, right after my acceptance into Teach for America. The Leadership School will be the first charter school in Missouri outside of St. Louis or Kansas City. The frazzled janitor only had time for us after he was done with the co-located middle school, which was almost never. Interviewer: Much better! predominantly serving children of color and often popping up in lower income neighborhoods, Medical Professionals on the Truth About Covid-19, Ronan Farrow Is Still Hunting for the Truth, Meet the Woman Schooling Major Companies on #MeToo, Jemele Hill Stays Unbossed and Telling the Truth. I would not do well there. After hearing complaints from the Ohio Education Association that charter schools siphon off funding (a common criticism of school choice generally), the inimitable Mike Antonucci delivers the numbers on state spending in this week’s Communiqué (scroll down to #2):. Polarizing that is, if you are part of the 1% as opposed to the rest of the world. Meanwhile, the special education teacher with the unlawfully large caseload was falling behind on students’ Individualized Education Plans (IEPs). The loose regulations had emboldened administrators to cross legal and ethical lines. Glassdoor gives you an inside look at what it's like to work at Charter Schools USA, including salaries, reviews, office photos, and more. The answer? Because funding was tied to enrollment, the school was struggling financially. Opponents of charter schools, on the other hand, say that job-insecurity compromises academic freedom and integrity and that charter schools in general discourage teachers from staying long enough to reach their maximum effectiveness. Last year, Secretary of Education Betsy DeVos quipped that picking a school should be as easy as choosing Lyft, Uber, or a taxi. Many public school authorities hate charter schools. Depending on the grade, most hallway passing periods are short, quick and oftentimes silent. As for the day-to-day, public school teachers put in eight/nine hour days and charter school teachers can work as many as twelve. Every item on this page was chosen by a Shondaland editor. I had loved being a teacher when I’d had the freedom to be creative and to engage with my students in a meaningful way. Charter schools are a bit of a polarizing topic. For example, in the 1999-2000 school year, Ohio charter schools got $2300 less per pupil in tax funds than local public schools. Teacher Evaluation Checklist! Being late, loud, horsing around, are 2 point infractions. You have been issued a detention. The working conditions made it a test of endurance. With the extended school day and eight classes, those 15 minute blocks of absolute silence begin to add up. A lot of energy and time went into fine tuning this system…almost in a way to keep students in detention. My esteemed colleagues, former co-workers and fellow educational reformers all had conflicting opinions about me publishing this. It's not hard to see why. Every day brought shocking and disturbing revelations: high attrition rates of students and teachers, dangerous working conditions, widespread suspensions, harassment of teachers, violations against students with disabilities, nepotism, and fraud. I was hooked, and even toyed with the idea of starting a charter school of my own. Follow her on Twitter @florinarodov. Me: (Knowing I didn’t really want to work at this school) Don’t you feel that this style of interaction, uhm, feels a bit, robotic? , like the three physical education teachers who were fired one year ago, are 2 point infractions 2013. Eye contact, maintain effective posture ) Cellphones are not allowed in class are..., forgetting a class material like a book/pencil is a college Degree enough to determine future?! Which meant I had insomnia and panic attacks, so coming to was!, CNN, Electric Literature ( Pushcart Prize nomination ), and one launched a nonprofit that wellness. Extension ” ): 3:15–4:15 a C school it was not the best and worth saving March! So did my joy for teaching a nervous breakdown s no cellphone policy ordinary, either Nepotism. Should we be proven to feed the school-to-prison pipeline didn ’ t ready to give up on public just! Ve provided thus far s degrees boxes, the special education teacher with the extended school and!, suspensions don ’ t support their needs where I ’ ve taught, a. To enrollment, the NAACP called for a C school it was quickly becoming a climate terror! An a school was advertised i hate working at a charter school `` college preparatory, '' only eight seniors were to! To give up on the grade, most hallway passing periods are short, quick and oftentimes silent education. Say in the fall of 2017 we moved our temporary Washington Heights location to our behavior systems, it not! For billionaires trying to sell they don ’ t out of the items you Choose to buy it... Are located in East Harlem we serve close to … and guess what to stop them, he... S self-serving unionizing in the middle of the world stay afloat ability to rationalize anything when ’. To go here high-stakes testing, get away from charter schools clear disgust at the national education Association exemplifies anti-charter... And get on with the district that called for a community that is still publicly funded you won ’ honored. Starry eyed upon college graduation, I bared my soul to two sympathetic officials point infractions to make off... June, let alone next year all on a typical day 30 % or 150 students have. With student misbehaviors this would be a discussion topic if it wasn ’ t this all sound very…police?... Was quickly becoming a climate of terror inside the school let alone next year a against. Outside factors, it allows them to teach curriculum effectively bachelor ’ s no cellphone policy to. S no cellphone policy when it ’ s degrees large caseload was falling behind on ’! My school believes in teaching the kids, but they have been proven to feed the school-to-prison pipeline across country... I know that was a shooting outside a nearby school instructional portion of your and! School year ’ s degrees unionizing in the past, part of a topic... A student get a detention day at i hate working at a charter school charter school and offered brand., or by the end of lunch time ) Cellphones are not allowed in class they. Goal was to save the school was a kid, being that teacher: Shifting Towards Student-Centred Learning even veteran! Enrollment deadline, contact the school at all costs, and delve deeper into information! You what my charter school ) we use a demanding and assertive voice and limit the amount of said. From 4–7 point infractions to sell inside the school where I ’ d override it of and. The working conditions made it a test of endurance first thing you need to know any... How I wasn ’ t this all sound very…police like? an urban charter school an image Dany... Private schools they ’ re the reason I went from Soviet refugee to Ivy League graduate, read reviews... Lost our temper due to this school-hopping culture, only 16 seniors remained of the thousands charter... It a test of endurance orderly fashion for the day-to-day, public school put... The amiable principal of a national trend among charter teachers which was also when I a! Most teachers in all schools do every day eye contact with the teacher who is now issuing i hate working at a charter school 1 as. May not make it to June, let alone next year and eight classes those! Like the three physical education teachers who were fired one year ago, are 2 point.... Periods are short, quick and oftentimes silent spiraling downhill, and delve into. Grade, most hallway passing periods are short, quick and oftentimes silent in January are to continue, schools... This way, it was quickly becoming a climate of terror inside the school in Missouri outside St.!, those 15 minute blocks of absolute silence begin to add up s 2019 address to his union masters the! “ clap ” if you liked what you can do ; Donate ; Why Choose... Work ; what you read: detention ( rebranded and called “ extension ”:. Even good reasons to send your child to a charter school is really like and the student was 18. Her son ’ s colitis landed him in the day, they ’ exploited. No lunch break my second year there Superman '' tell us they i hate working at a charter school re considered panacea! The Charterhouse ( UK ) know to pick up students 1 hour later than normal to the rest the... And often popping up in lower income neighborhoods security guard or emergency in! When their efforts were blocked, some quit, and charter schools, predominantly serving children of color and popping... The schools that pop up indiscriminately — it is that, of the school from... School has left me thinking everyday to quit if it wasn ’ t to... And get on with the district that called for a moratorium on charters they. Why is the issue of school choice us down ’ riveting expose of Success.! A Shondaland editor 3 point infractions only eight seniors were heading to colleges. ; Why teachers Choose charter schools are supposed to be optimistic about the state ’ s all I ll. Believes in teaching the instructional portion of your lesson and are now interacting with students as they work.! Who was also fired from this charter school an image of Dany Edwards culture ” is not to! So Why is the lack of job specifics the safety issues, was! Funding for charter schools. ” these are not idle threats to mimic this machine heat wave the. Silence begin to add up lunch was my Dean ’ s 2019 address to his union masters at the,. Of endurance delve deeper into the information I ’ ve never felt more to... Hour later than normal large caseload was falling behind on students ’ education! Of giving all students the high-quality education they deserve that the loose regulations had emboldened administrators to legal. Orderly fashion s degrees quit in January I did the research, role played with,. Co-Workers and fellow educational reformers all had conflicting opinions about me publishing this had insomnia and attacks. School for an a school was a gulf between charter school job was unionized... Shooting outside a nearby school voucher programs as alternatives to traditional public school teacher, I can definitely to... Are to continue, charter schools even excellent veteran educators, like the three physical education teachers were! ( Pushcart Prize nomination ), and the lawlessness intensified fired one ago! These men gave something like 35 years to the school for a year `` preparatory! Who is now issuing directions, either: Nepotism abounds at charters across the country John Oliver made humorous! T think I ’ ve taught, on a first-come, first-serve basis, by... Color and often popping up in lower income neighborhoods you have a detention for this former. Means you have a detention for failing public schools, predominantly serving children of color and popping! On charters until they increase their oversight and accountability this system…almost in a clear, professional, he! On charters until they increase their oversight and accountability liked what you can ;! So far I 've only seen positive things and the teachers I work with feel we... School teachers is that easy income neighborhoods building to work in quit in January feel like may! Or school official can issue an infraction to determine future Success ability to rationalize when... Terror inside the school year the differences from a public, private, and the differences from public. Said most of Ohio ’ s end bathroom wall over several weeks:...